Sleep disruption – measured with wearable / apps – during first week
Hippocampal activity (van Rooij et al., 2017).
Amygdala reactivity (Stevens et al., 2017).
Other molecular/genetic markers can be used at any time to aid in prognosis and prediction of risk
Some evidence that low cortisol, elevated catecholamines predict PTSD vulnerability
Inflammatory state – Low INF, low TNF – (Michopolous 2019).
Skin Conductance – biomarker and vulnerability marker (Hinrichs 2017, 2019).
FKBP5 (and multiple other genes) expression (Segman et al., 2005).
Female>Male risk (Kessler 2020).
Pre-MVC nightmares and sleep stress reactivity predicted 8-week PTSD (mediated through 2-week ASD) (Neylan 2020).